The presentation explores the impact of digitalization on university systems with a special focus on digital libraries and open access. First, it offers an overview both at international and national level, by referring to the Berlin Declaration, to the Horizon 2020 framework and to national initiatives launched by CRUI and some Italian Universities. Second, drawing upon institutional surveys and reports, it illustrates the main trends and future perspectives regarding open access and scientific publications. Finally, it proposes a set of indicators to measure the use and the performance of University Library’s electronic resources and some key policy messages to enhance open access awareness in the academic community.
The presentation explores the impact of digitalization on university systems with a special focus on digital teaching and learning. First, it offers an overview on university digitalization and open educational resources (OER) at international level. Second, drawing upon institutional surveys and reports, it illustrates the main trends and initiatives, such as learning analytics. Finally, it proposes a set of indicators to measure digitalization in Italian Universities and some key policy messages.
The presentation summarizes how the ICT-based developments affect teaching and learning, focusing specifically on the MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). MOOCs offer is growing very rapidly: there are almost 9,500 courses available in 2018, while they were about 4,000 in 2016, and just few hundreds in 2012. The presentation compares the most popular MOOC providers both globally and at national level. The comparative analysis involves US, China, and the major Western European countries, including Italy. The latest trends in MOOCs show that they play a key role in life-long learning within the current changing job landscape. On the other hand, a shift can be observed in MOOC providers’ priorities towards users who are willing to pay.
The AlmaLaurea 2017 report presents a survey on the employment status of Italian graduates, distinguishing between bachelor’s and master’s degree programs. The level of employment is measured twice, i.e. one year and five years after graduation.
Recently, there has been a slight increase in the employment rate, following the significant contraction that occurred between 2008 and 2013 (-16 percentage points for the bachelor’s and -11 for the master’s degree programs).
One year after graduation, the employment rate is higher for master’s than for bachelor’s degree holders. However such trend reverses when considering the employment rate 5 years after graduation and the gap is increasing.
As regards the type of employment, there is a higher percentage of training contracts among master’s than bachelor’s graduates. The latter show a greater increase in the category of self-employment and a stronger decrease in the permanent employment category. Surprisingly, bachelor’s degree holders are more likely to gain a permanent contract 5 years after graduation.
As regards the salaries, obtaining a master’s degree entails a € 40-50 benefit on the net salary. However, it should be noted that such trend is subject to a wide variety depending on the discipline. Moreover, in some cases the average salary of bachelor’s degree holders is higher (e.g. in the psychological and legal disciplinary group).
Read the XIX Survey (2017) – Graduates’ employment condition by AlmaLaurea
The presentation compares trends both in the academic staff and in the administrative staff in the largest Western European university systems, namely Italy, Spain, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. We also explore the trend in the administrative to academic staff ratio from a comparative perspective.
The analysis shows that the number of academic staff members in the Italian university system is considerably lower than in the other systems under examination (50,000 academic staff members in Italy vs from 80,000 to more than 250,000 in the other countries considered).
Moreover, the Administrative to Academic staff ratio is declining especially in Italy, Germany and the United Kingdom. The reasons for such decline vary. In Italy, we can observe a greater decrease in the administrative staff than in the academic staff. On the contrary, in Germany and in the United Kingdom the decline of the ratio is driven by the increase of academic staff.
Supplementary articles on the topic – Read the articles:
Cattedre a confronto in Europa: solo l’Italia ha perso così tanti docenti by D. Donina e M. Meoli in Scuola 24. Il quotidiano della Formazione, dell’Università e della Ricerca – Il Sole 24 Ore.
Italy’s deplected academic body is unlikely to be fattened up by D. Donina in Times Higher Education.